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Wu Kingdom (220-280)

One of the states of the Three Kingdoms (220-280), during Six Dynasties (220-598). Renowned for beautiful woven textiles, the Wu State was a central area for trade in the south. It was one of the three states the Han Dynasty fell apart into after four centuries of holding China together as one empire. Located along the South Eastern coast, from the area around modern days Shanghai, all the way down towards Vietnam and then inland along the Yangzi River, capital: Jianye (present-day Nanjing, Jiangxi province).

The Kingdom of Wu (222-280) people, region and state with its own distinct culture and language, was one of the three empires during the period of the Three Kingdoms (220-280). It was located in the southeastern part of China with its capital at present-day Nanjing. It bordered to the Yangtze River in the north and the East China Sea in the east. Its access to key waterways, allowed Wu to develop maritime trade and cultural exchanges. Their naval strength was particularly highlighted in battles like the Battle of Red Cliffs. Wu was a center of culture and learning and home to many intellectuals, artists, and scholars. Its innovative leaders were flexible in strategies and open to adopting new military and administrative tactics.

The Battle of Red Cliffs, also known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive battle that took place in the winter of 208-209 AD during the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. The battle was fought between the allied forces of the southern warlords Sun Quan of Wu and Liu Bei of Shu against the northern warlord Cao Cao of Wei, who had a much larger fleet and army.

Cao Cao aimed to unify China under his rule, but his forces were defeated by the allied southern forces at the Red Cliffs along the Yangtze River. The victory of the southern alliance led to the establishment of the Three Kingdoms (Wei, Shu, and Wu), each ruled by different warlords, marking a significant period in Chinese history characterized by warfare, strategy, and shifting alliances. The battle is also renowned for the brilliant strategies employed, particularly by Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang, the chief commanders of the allied forces.

The Battle of the Red Cliff was a decisive battle that took place in the winter of 208-209 AD and signified the end of the Han Dynasty (202 BC - 9 AD; 25-220 AD), where a number of Southern warlords defeated the numerically by far larger Han forces during the largest battle in maritime history and saw the united Han china, that had lasted four centuries, falling apart into the succeeding Three Kingdoms (220-280 AD).

There are several historical texts and poems that reference the Battle of Red Cliffs. One of the most famous is a poem by the Chinese poet Su Shih (1036-1101) also Su Dongpo, a renowned poet of the Song Dynasty. The poem is often referred to as "Red Cliff Ode" or "Red Cliff Ballad". In this poem, Su Shi reminisces about the battle while visiting the Red Cliffs, expressing his reflections on the transience of human affairs and the eternity of nature.

The Battle of Red Cliffs is also vividly described in the historical novel "Romance of the Three Kingdoms" by Luo Guanzhong. This novel is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels, and it dramatizes the history of the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period, including the Battle of Red Cliffs. In the novel, the battle is portrayed with a mix of historical facts and fictional elements.